Wind turbine, the components

Wind turbine, the components

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What are thecomponents of a wind turbineand how does the wind giant work?
On a descriptive level, we can say that the main onescomponents of a wind turbinethere are seven: the rotor and blades, the generator, the transmission system (with shaft and gears), the control system, the braking devices and the orientation system.

Observing one wind turbine four are immediately recognizedcomponents:the head with the blades and the rotor, the base and the trunk. What we have called "head" is called spacecraftand represents the containment structure of two componentscrucial, the rotor and the electric generator. Always in the spacecraft, the transmission shaft is located between the generator and the blades. The transmission shaft is kept in rotation by theshovels thus, the rotational energy from the hub (the component in which theshovels) is transferred to the electric generator. The gears related to the transmission shaft can play the role of a revolutions multiplier: a revolutions multiplier can bring 30 real revolutions per minute to an internal rotation of 18,000 revolutions per minute, rotation necessary for the generation of electricity.


To allow the correct functioning of thecomponentsjust described, there are two systems, the control system and the braking system. If not checked, a turbine it tends to reach excessively high speeds during periods of strong wind thus exceeding its rated power. The control system is usually given by electronic, mechanical and hydraulic devices (for example, Eaton control systems), it can include an anemometer, a micro-computer and sensors of different nature.

As for the braking systems they can be aerodynamic, electrical or mechanical. The brake system is also localized on thespacecraft, this is why it can be defined - in all senses - the head of the wind turbine. The aerodynamic brake systems are given by structures that tend to slow down the action exerted by too strong winds, so in large turbines you can see the tips of the blades that can be rotated and exert a braking action.


In smaller turbines there is a passive system that manages to orient the rotor parallel to the wind. Mechanical systems usually include a particular disc brake placed on the shaft. Electric braking systems dissipate the power of the wind in various ways, the electrical mechanism that deactivates the output wires of the generator by transforming the mechanical energy of the wind into heat is very common.



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